Aztec

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Aztec

From 15 October the Weltmuseum Wien is hosting an exhibition that showcases the legendary art and culture of the Aztecs. In Pocahontas' wardrobe you will find a wide variety of prints, most of her clothes being covered in tribal or aztec patterns, denim and fringed ponchos as well as. Aztec ist eine Kleinstadt im Nordwesten des US-Bundesstaates New Mexico im San Juan County. Aztec hat Einwohner und eine Fläche von 25,4 km².

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The management was very friendly Spiele Kostenlos Hearts made every effort to insure that we were satisfied with our stay. Bright, W. Aztec and Maya Myths 4th University of Texas ed. Franco, Jean The Early Aztec period was a time of growth and competition among altepetl. Berdan, Frances
Aztec Woman's Karten Spielen Solitär Journal. The Aztecs did Aztec things to keep the gods happy. The hegemonic nature of the Aztec empire can be seen in the fact that generally local rulers were restored to their positions once their city-state was conquered, and the Aztecs did not generally interfere in local affairs as long as Spielo Tv tribute payments were made and the local elites participated willingly. In Aztec artwork a number of monumental stone sculptures have been preserved, such sculptures usually functioned as adornments for religious architecture. Archived from the original on 22 September Soustelle, Jacques The Early Aztec period was a time of growth Em Türkei Weiter competition among altepetl. It was the role of the Cihuacoatl to govern a given city itself. University of New Mexico Press. Hence the term applied to all those peoples who claimed to carry the heritage from this mythical place. It is possible that their migration southward was Eurolotto Systemschein of a general movement of peoples that followed, or perhaps helped trigger, the collapse of the Toltec civilization. It was the de facto Aztec acknowledged center of empire. Journal of Interdisciplinary History. Their works were an El Gordo Online source of income for the city. Macmillan Publishers. Aztec Learning System Login. Login. Password. The Aztecs (/ ˈæztɛks /) were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from to The Aztec peoples included different ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who dominated large parts of Mesoamerica from the 14th to the 16th centuries. The Aztecs, who probably originated as a nomadic tribe in northern Mexico, arrived in Mesoamerica around the beginning of the 13th century. Aztec rule has been described by scholars as " hegemonic " or "indirect". The Aztecs left rulers of conquered cities in power so long as they agreed to pay semi-annual tribute to the Alliance, as well as supply military forces when needed for the Aztec war efforts. The Aztec Empire flourished between c. 13CE and, at its greatest extent, covered most of northern Mesoamerica. Aztec warriors were able to dominate their neighbouring states and permit rulers such as Motecuhzoma II to impose Aztec ideals and religion across Mexico.

The Aztecs believed in many gods. Two of the most important gods they worshipped were Huitzilopochtli , the god of war and the sun , and Tlaloc , the rain god.

The Aztecs did many things to keep the gods happy. These things included human sacrifices. The Aztecs also believed that the gods were in an almost never-ending struggle.

The hearts and blood from the sacrifice fed the good gods to give them strength to fight the evil gods. The human sacrifices often took place on the Templo Mayor , the Aztecs' great pyramid temple.

Huitzilopochtli, as depicted in the Codex Telleriano-Remensis. Quetzalcoatl in the Codex Telleriano-Remensis.

Tezcatlipoca in the Codex Borgia. The Aztecs ate plants and vegetables that could grow easily in Mesoamerica. The main foods in the Aztec diet were maize , beans, and squash.

They often used tomatoes and chili as spices. They also created chocolate. However, they did not have sugar , so their chocolate was a strong liquid with chili in it.

In Aztec society , there were different social classes with different social statuses. The most important people were the rulers.

Next were nobles. These were the Empire's powerful members of the government; great warriors ; judges ; and priests.

The next social class was the commoners common people. These were the Empire's everyday workers. Most of them farmed , ran stores, or traded. Other workers included artisans , regular soldiers , and fishers.

Commoners were allowed to own land as a group or a family. However, a single person was not allowed to own land.

The lowest social classes in Aztec society were serfs and then slaves. Tlatocayotl , or the principle of rulership, established that this divine right was inherited by descent.

Political order was therefore also a cosmic order, and to kill a tlatoani was to transgress that order. For that reason, whenever a tlatoani was killed or otherwise removed from their station, a relative and member of the same bloodline was typically placed in their stead.

The establishment of the office of Huetlatoani understood through the creation of another level of rulership, hueitlatocayotl , standing in superior contrast to the lesser tlatocayotl principle.

Expansion of the empire was guided by a militaristic interpretation of Nahua religion, specifically a devout veneration of the sun god, Huitzilopochtli.

Militaristic state rituals were performed throughout the year according to a ceremonial calendar of events, rites, and mock battles.

It was under Tlacaelel that Huitzilopochtli assumed his elevated role in the state pantheon and who argued that it was through blood sacrifice that the Sun would be maintained and thereby stave off the end of the world.

It was under this new, militaristic interpretation of Huitzilopochtli that Aztec soldiers were encouraged to fight wars and capture enemy soldiers for sacrifice.

Though blood sacrifice was common in Mesoamerica, the scale of human sacrifice under the Aztecs was likely unprecedented in the region.

The most developed code of law was developed in the city-state of Texcoco under its ruler Nezahualcoyotl.

It was a formal written code, not merely a collection of customary practices. The law code in Texcoco under Nezahualcoyotl was legalistic, that is cases were tried by particular types of evidence and the social status of the litigants was disregarded, and consisted of 80 written laws.

These laws called for severe, publicly administered punishments, creating a legal framework of social control. Much less is known about the legal system in Tenochtitlan, which might be less legalistic or sophisticated as those of Texcoco for this period.

These laws served to establish and govern relations between the state, classes, and individuals. Punishment was to be meted out solely by state authorities.

Nahua mores were enshrined in these laws, criminalizing public acts of homosexuality, drunkenness, and nudity, not to mention more universal proscriptions against theft, murder, and property damage.

As stated before, pochteca could serve as judges, often exercising judicial oversight of their own members. Likewise, military courts dealt with both cases within the military and without during wartime.

There was an appeal process, with appellate courts standing between local, typically market-place courts, on the provincial level and a supreme court and two special higher appellate courts at Tenochtitlan.

One of those two special courts dealt with cases arising within Tenochtitlan, the other with cases originating from outside the capital.

The ultimate judicial authority laid in hands of the Huey tlatoani , who had the right to appoint lesser judges. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the Aztec Empire as a political entity. For Aztec culture, see Aztecs. For Aztec society, see Aztec society. Imperial alliance of city states located in central Mexico during the 15th and 16th centuries.

Engraving of the Teocalli of the Sacred War representing the Aztec coat of arms. Quachtli Cocoa bean. Full list of monarchs at bottom of page.

Main article: Aztec warfare. Main article: Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire. See also: Aztec religion. See also: Aztec emperors family tree. International Studies Quarterly.

Retrieved 7 September Oxford University Press Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Stanford University Press.

Somervill Empire of the Aztecs. Infobase Publishing. Glass 18 February In Robert Wauchope ed. University of Texas Press. University of Oklahoma Press Sarah Cline, and Javier Pescador.

Pearson, Douglass K. Ballentine, translator. El Paso: Texas Western Press, Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest 1st pbk edition ed. Typical Aztec crops included maize corn , along with beans, squashes, potatoes, tomatoes and avocados; they also supported themselves through fishing and hunting local animals such as rabbits, armadillos, snakes, coyotes and wild turkey.

Their relatively sophisticated system of agriculture including intensive cultivation of land and irrigation methods and a powerful military tradition would enable the Aztecs to build a successful state, and later an empire.

In , under their leader Itzcoatl, the Aztecs formed a three-way alliance with the Texcocans and the Tacubans to defeat their most powerful rivals for influence in the region, the Tepanec, and conquer their capital of Azcapotzalco.

By the early 16th century, the Aztecs had come to rule over up to small states, and some 5 to 6 million people, either by conquest or commerce. The Aztec civilization was also highly developed socially, intellectually and artistically.

It was a highly structured society with a strict caste system; at the top were nobles, while at the bottom were serfs, indentured servants and enslaved workers.

The Aztec faith shared many aspects with other Mesoamerican religions, like that of the Maya , notably including the rite of human sacrifice.

The Aztec calendar, common in much of Mesoamerica, was based on a solar cycle of days and a ritual cycle of days; the calendar played a central role in the religion and rituals of Aztec society.

The first European to visit Mexican territory was Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba, who arrived in Yucatan from Cuba with three ships and about men in early In March , Cortes landed at the town of Tabasco , where he learned from the natives of the great Aztec civilization, then ruled by Moctezuma or Montezuma II.

The Aztec state was a despotism in which the military arm played a dominant role. Valour in war was, in fact, the surest path to advancement in Aztec society, which was caste- and class-divided but nonetheless vertically fluid.

The priestly and bureaucratic classes were involved in the administration of the empire, while at the bottom of society were classes of serfs, indentured servants, and outright slaves.

Aztec religion was syncretistic, absorbing elements from many other Mesoamerican cultures. At base, it shared many of the cosmological beliefs of earlier peoples, notably the Maya , such as that the present earth was the last in a series of creations and that it occupied a position between systems of 13 heavens and 9 underworlds.

Closely entwined with Aztec religion was the calendar, on which the elaborate round of rituals and ceremonies that occupied the priests was based.

The Aztec calendar was the one common to much of Mesoamerica, and it comprised a solar year of days and a sacred year of days; the two yearly cycles running in parallel produced a larger cycle of 52 years.

The Aztec empire was still expanding, and its society still evolving, when its progress was halted in by the appearance of Spanish explorers.

Offner's Law and Politics in Aztec Texcoco. When used to describe ethnic groups , the term "Aztec" refers to several Nahuatl-speaking peoples of central Mexico in the postclassic period of Mesoamerican chronology, especially the Mexica, the ethnic group that had a leading role in establishing the hegemonic empire based at Tenochtitlan.

The term extends to further ethnic groups associated with the Aztec empire, such as the Acolhua, the Tepanec and others that were incorporated into the empire.

In older usage the term was commonly used about modern Nahuatl-speaking ethnic groups, as Nahuatl was previously referred to as the "Aztec language".

In recent usage, these ethnic groups are referred to as the Nahua peoples. To the Aztecs themselves the word "aztec" was not an endonym for any particular ethnic group.

Rather, it was an umbrella term used to refer to several ethnic groups, not all of them Nahuatl-speaking, that claimed heritage from the mythic place of origin, Aztlan.

Alexander von Humboldt originated the modern usage of "Aztec" in , as a collective term applied to all the people linked by trade, custom, religion, and language to the Mexica state and the Triple Alliance.

In , with the publication of the work of William H. Prescott on the history of the conquest of Mexico, the term was adopted by most of the world, including 19th-century Mexican scholars who saw it as a way to distinguish present-day Mexicans from pre-conquest Mexicans.

This usage has been the subject of debate in more recent years, but the term "Aztec" is still more common. Knowledge of Aztec society rests on several different sources: The many archeological remains of everything from temple pyramids to thatched huts, can be used to understand many of the aspects of what the Aztec world was like.

However, archeologists often must rely on knowledge from other sources to interpret the historical context of artifacts.

There are many written texts by the indigenous people and Spaniards of the early colonial period that contain invaluable information about precolonial Aztec history.

These texts provide insight into the political histories of various Aztec city-states, and their ruling lineages. Such histories were produced as well in pictorial codices.

Some of these manuscripts were entirely pictorial, often with glyphs. In the postconquest era many other texts were written in Latin script by either literate Aztecs or by Spanish friars who interviewed the native people about their customs and stories.

An important pictorial and alphabetic text produced in the early sixteenth century was Codex Mendoza , named after the first viceroy of Mexico and perhaps commissioned by him, to inform the Spanish crown about the political and economic structure of the Aztec empire.

These annals used pictorial histories and were subsequently transformed into alphabetic annals in Latin script.

Spanish friars also produced documentation in chronicles and other types of accounts. Of key importance is Toribio de Benavente Motolinia , one of the first twelve Franciscans arriving in Mexico in Scholarly study of Aztec civilization is most often based on scientific and multidisciplinary methodologies, combining archeological knowledge with ethnohistorical and ethnographic information.

It is a matter of debate whether the enormous city of Teotihuacan was inhabited by speakers of Nahuatl, or whether Nahuas had not yet arrived in central Mexico in the classic period.

It is generally agreed that the Nahua peoples were not indigenous to the highlands of central Mexico, but that they gradually migrated into the region from somewhere in northwestern Mexico.

At the fall of Teotihuacan in the 6th century CE, a number of city states rose to power in central Mexico, some of them, including Cholula and Xochicalco, probably inhabited by Nahuatl speakers.

As the former nomadic hunter-gatherer peoples mixed with the complex civilizations of Mesoamerica, adopting religious and cultural practices, the foundation for later Aztec culture was laid.

After CE, during the postclassic period, a number of sites almost certainly inhabited by Nahuatl speakers became powerful. Among them the site of Tula, Hidalgo , and also city states such as Tenayuca , and Colhuacan in the valley of Mexico and Cuauhnahuac in Morelos.

In the ethnohistorical sources from the colonial period, the Mexica themselves describe their arrival in the Valley of Mexico. The ethnonym Aztec Nahuatl Aztecah means "people from Aztlan ", Aztlan being a mythical place of origin toward the north.

Hence the term applied to all those peoples who claimed to carry the heritage from this mythical place. The migration stories of the Mexica tribe tell how they traveled with other tribes, including the Tlaxcalteca , Tepaneca and Acolhua , but that eventually their tribal deity Huitzilopochtli told them to split from the other Aztec tribes and take on the name "Mexica".

The most powerful were Colhuacan to the south and Azcapotzalco to the west. The Tepanecs of Azcapotzalco soon expelled the Mexica from Chapultepec.

In , Colhuacan ruler Cocoxtli gave them permission to settle in the empty barrens of Tizapan, where they were eventually assimilated into Culhuacan culture.

After living in Colhuacan, the Mexica were again expelled and were forced to move. According to Aztec legend, in , the Mexica were shown a vision of an eagle perched on a prickly pear cactus , eating a snake.

The vision indicated the location where they were to build their settlement. The year of foundation is usually given as In the Mexica royal dynasty was founded when Acamapichtli , son of a Mexica father and a Colhua mother, was elected as the first Huey Tlatoani of Tenochtitlan.

In the first 50 years after the founding of the Mexica dynasty, the Mexica were a tributary of Azcapotzalco, which had become a major regional power under the ruler Tezozomoc.

The Mexica supplied the Tepaneca with warriors for their successful conquest campaigns in the region and received part of the tribute from the conquered city states.

In this way, the political standing and economy of Tenochtitlan gradually grew. In , at Acamapichtli's death, his son Huitzilihhuitl lit. Chimalpopoca lit.

In , Azcapotzalco initiated a war against the Acolhua of Texcoco and killed their ruler Ixtlilxochitl.

Even though Ixtlilxochitl was married to Chimalpopoca's daughter, the Mexica ruler continued to support Tezozomoc.

Tezozomoc died in , and his sons began a struggle for rulership of Azcapotzalco. During this struggle for power, Chimalpopoca died, probably killed by Tezozomoc's son Maxtla who saw him as a competitor.

The Mexica were now in open war with Azcapotzalco and Itzcoatl petitioned for an alliance with Nezahualcoyotl , son of the slain Texcocan ruler Ixtlilxochitl against Maxtla.

Itzcoatl also allied with Maxtla's brother Totoquihuaztli ruler of the Tepanec city of Tlacopan. The Triple Alliance of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco and Tlacopan besieged Azcapotzalco, and in they destroyed the city and sacrificed Maxtla.

Through this victory Tenochtitlan became the dominant city state in the Valley of Mexico, and the alliance between the three city-states provided the basis on which the Aztec Empire was built.

Itzcoatl proceeded by securing a power basis for Tenochtitlan, by conquering the city-states on the southern lake — including Culhuacan , Xochimilco , Cuitlahuac and Mizquic.

These states had an economy based on highly productive chinampa agriculture, cultivating human-made extensions of rich soil in the shallow lake Xochimilco.

Itzcoatl then undertook further conquests in the valley of Morelos , subjecting the city state of Cuauhnahuac today Cuernavaca.

In , Motecuzoma I Ilhuicamina [nb 4] lit. The accession of a new ruler in the dominant city state was often an occasion for subjected cities to rebel by refusing to pay tribute.

This meant that new rulers began their rule with a coronation campaign, often against rebellious tributaries, but also sometimes demonstrating their military might by making new conquests.

Motecuzoma tested the attitudes of the cities around the valley by requesting laborers for the enlargement of the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan.

Only the city of Chalco refused to provide laborers, and hostilities between Chalco and Tenochtitlan would persist until the s. Motecuzoma therefore initiated a state of low-intensity warfare against these three cities, staging minor skirmishes called " Flower Wars " Nahuatl xochiyaoyotl against them, perhaps as a strategy of exhaustion.

Motecuzoma also consolidated the political structure of the Triple Alliance, and the internal political organization of Tenochtitlan. His brother Tlacaelel served as his main advisor Nahuatl languages: Cihuacoatl and he is considered the architect of major political reforms in this period, consolidating the power of the noble class Nahuatl languages: pipiltin and instituting a set of legal codes, and the practice of reinstating conquered rulers in their cities bound by fealty to the Mexica tlatoani.

In , the next ruler was Axayacatl lit. Axayacatl also conquered the independent Mexica city of Tlatelolco, located on the northern part of the island where Tenochtitlan was also located.

The Tlatelolco ruler Moquihuix was married to Axayacatl's sister, and his alleged mistreatment of her was used as an excuse to incorporate Tlatelolco and its important market directly under the control of the tlatoani of Tenochtitlan.

Axayacatl then conquered areas in Central Guerrero, the Puebla Valley, on the gulf coast and against the Otomi and Matlatzinca in the Toluca valley.

The Toluca valley was a buffer zone against the powerful Tarascan state in Michoacan , against which Axayacatl turned next.

In the major campaign against the Tarascans Nahuatl languages: Michhuahqueh in —79 the Aztec forces were repelled by a well organized defense.

Axayacatl was soundly defeated in a battle at Tlaximaloyan today Tajimaroa , losing most of his 32, men and only barely escaping back to Tenochtitlan with the remnants of his army.

In at Axayacatls death, his older brother Tizoc was elected ruler. Tizoc's coronation campaign against the Otomi of Metztitlan failed as he lost the major battle and only managed to secure 40 prisoners to be sacrificed for his coronation ceremony.

Having shown weakness, many of the tributary towns rebelled and consequently most of Tizoc's short reign was spent attempting to quell rebellions and maintain control of areas conquered by his predecessors.

Tizoc died suddenly in , and it has been suggested that he was poisoned by his brother and war leader Ahuitzotl who became the next tlatoani.

Tizoc is mostly known as the namesake of the Stone of Tizoc a monumental sculpture Nahuatl temalacatl , decorated with representation of Tizoc's conquests.

The next ruler was Ahuitzotl lit. His successful coronation campaign suppressed rebellions in the Toluca valley and conquered Jilotepec and several communities in the northern Valley of Mexico.

A second campaign to the gulf coast was also highly successful. He began an enlargement of the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan, inaugurating the new temple in For the inauguration ceremony the Mexica invited the rulers of all their subject cities, who participated as spectators in the ceremony in which an unprecedented number of war captives were sacrificed — some sources giving a figure of 80, prisoners sacrificed over four days.

Probably the actual figure of sacrifices was much smaller, but still numbering several thousand. Ahuitzotl also constructed monumental architecture in sites such as Calixtlahuaca, Malinalco and Tepoztlan.

After a rebellion in the towns of Alahuiztlan and Oztoticpac in Northern Guerrero he ordered the entire population executed, and repopulated with people from the valley of Mexico.

He also constructed a fortified garrison at Oztuma defending the border against the Tarascan state. Moctezuma II Xocoyotzin is known to world history as the Aztec ruler when the Spanish invaders and their indigenous allies began their conquest of the empire in a two-year-long campaign — His early rule did not hint at his future fame.

He succeeded to the rulership after the death of Ahuitzotl. Moctezuma Xocoyotzin lit. He began his rule in standard fashion, conducting a coronation campaign to demonstrate his skills as a leader.

He attacked the fortified city of Nopallan in Oaxaca and subjected the adjacent region to the empire. An effective warrior, Moctezuma maintained the pace of conquest set by his predecessor and subjected large areas in Guerrero, Oaxaca, Puebla and even far south along the Pacific and Gulf coasts, conquering the province of Xoconochco in Chiapas.

He also consolidated the class structure of Aztec society, by making it harder for commoners Nahuatl languages: macehualtin to accede to the privileged class of the pipiltin through merit in combat.

He also instituted a strict sumptuary code limiting the types of luxury goods that could be consumed by commoners.

In , Moctezuma received the first news of ships with strange warriors having landed on the Gulf Coast near Cempoallan and he dispatched messengers to greet them and find out what was happening, and he ordered his subjects in the area to keep him informed of any new arrivals.

At this point, the power balance had shifted towards the Spaniards who now held Motecuzoma as a prisoner in his own palace.

As this shift in power became clear to Moctezuma's subjects, the Spaniards became increasingly unwelcome in the capital city, and in June , hostilities broke out, culminating in the massacre in the Great Temple , and a major uprising of the Mexica against the Spanish.

During the fighting, Moctezuma was killed, either by the Spaniards who killed him as they fled the city or by the Mexica themselves who considered him a traitor.

He ruled only 80 days, perhaps dying in a smallpox epidemic, although early sources do not give the cause.

The Aztecs were weakened by disease, and the Spanish enlisted tens of thousands of Indian allies, especially Tlaxcalans , for the assault on Tenochtitlan.

His death marked the end of a tumultuous era in Aztec political history. The most powerful nobles were called lords Nahuatl languages: teuctin and they owned and controlled noble estates or houses, and could serve in the highest government positions or as military leaders.

Their works were an important source of income for the city. Some macehualtin were landless and worked directly for a lord Nahuatl languages: mayehqueh , whereas the majority of commoners were organized into calpollis which gave them access to land and property.

Commoners were able to obtain privileges similar to those of the nobles by demonstrating prowess in warfare. When a warrior took a captive he accrued the right to use certain emblems, weapons or garments, and as he took more captives his rank and prestige increased.

The Aztec family pattern was bilateral, counting relatives on the father's and mother's side of the family equally, and inheritance was also passed both to sons and daughters.

This meant that women could own property just as men, and that women therefore had a good deal of economic freedom from their spouses.

Nevertheless, Aztec society was highly gendered with separate gender roles for men and women. Men were expected to work outside of the house, as farmers, traders, craftsmen and warriors, whereas women were expected to take the responsibility of the domestic sphere.

Women could however also work outside of the home as small-scale merchants, doctors, priests and midwives. Warfare was highly valued and a source of high prestige, but women's work was metaphorically conceived of as equivalent to warfare, and as equally important in maintaining the equilibrium of the world and pleasing the gods.

This situation has led some scholars to describe Aztec gender ideology as an ideology not of a gender hierarchy, but of gender complementarity, with gender roles being separate but equal.

Among the nobles, marriage alliances were often used as a political strategy with lesser nobles marrying daughters from more prestigious lineages whose status was then inherited by their children.

Nobles were also often polygamous, with lords having many wives. Polygamy was not very common among the commoners and some sources describe it as being prohibited.

The names for these gender identities are deeply connected to the religious customs of the Aztecs, and as such, did play a large role in Aztec society.

Nahuas was of the Aztec and Toltec culture. Nahuas identified as Xochiquetzal; Xochiquetzal is connected with sexual desires. Unkempt hair, and signified disarray is a sign that women are connected with sexual desires and prostitutes, this is because the Xochiquetzal looked like that on her throne.

Xochiquetzal is known as the goddess that seduces men, this deity was related to sexual desires and sexual activities. Nahus sexual and gender disorder is symbolized by head and feet turned.

Another gender identity is recognised by its Nahuatl word cuiloni. It is difficult to translate the word cuiloni as the documents from the Aztec Empire mainly are from the Spanish, who viewed homosexuality as sinful behavior, and thus wrote about these unfamiliar gender identities in a negative way, oftentimes employing discriminatory and vulgar language.

What is known for sure is that the cuiloni were biological males who acted in a submissive way both sexually and in other aspects of life.

For example, religiously speaking, they were associated with being sacrificed and eaten. It also transcended sexuality as passiveness, in general, was the main quality associated with the cuiloni.

The main unit of Aztec political organization was the city state, in Nahuatl called the altepetl , meaning "water-mountain".

Each altepetl was led by a ruler, a tlatoani , with authority over a group of nobles and a population of commoners.

The altepetl included a capital which served as a religious center, the hub of distribution and organization of a local population which often lived spread out in minor settlements surrounding the capital.

Altepetl were also the main source of ethnic identity for the inhabitants, even though Altepetl were frequently composed of groups speaking different languages.

Each altepetl would see itself as standing in a political contrast to other altepetl polities, and war was waged between altepetl states.

In this way Nahuatl speaking Aztecs of one Altepetl would be solidary with speakers of other languages belonging to the same altepetl, but enemies of Nahuatl speakers belonging to other competing altepetl states.

In the basin of Mexico, altepetl was composed of subdivisions called calpolli , which served as the main organizational unit for commoners. In Tlaxcala and the Puebla valley, the altepetl was organized into teccalli units headed by a lord Nahuatl languages: tecutli , who would hold sway over a territory and distribute rights to land among the commoners.

A calpolli was at once a territorial unit where commoners organized labor and land use, since land was not in private property, and also often a kinship unit as a network of families that were related through intermarriage.

Calpolli leaders might be or become members of the nobility, in which case they could represent their calpollis interests in the altepetl government.

In the valley of Morelos, archeologist Michael E. Smith estimates that a typical altepetl had from 10, to 15, inhabitants, and covered an area between 70 and square kilometers.

In the Morelos valley, altepetl sizes were somewhat smaller. Smith argues that the altepetl was primarily a political unit, made up of the population with allegiance to a lord, rather than as a territorial unit.

He makes this distinction because in some areas minor settlements with different altepetl allegiances were interspersed.

The Aztec Empire was ruled by indirect means. Like most European empires, it was ethnically very diverse, but unlike most European empires, it was more of a system of tribute than a single system of government.

Ethnohistorian Ross Hassig has argued that Aztec empire is best understood as an informal or hegemonic empire because it did not exert supreme authority over the conquered lands; it merely expected tributes to be paid and exerted force only to the degree it was necessary to ensure the payment of tribute.

The hegemonic nature of the Aztec empire can be seen in the fact that generally local rulers were restored to their positions once their city-state was conquered, and the Aztecs did not generally interfere in local affairs as long as the tribute payments were made and the local elites participated willingly.

Such compliance was secured by establishing and maintaining a network of elites, related through intermarriage and different forms of exchange.

Nevertheless, the expansion of the empire was accomplished through military control of frontier zones, in strategic provinces where a much more direct approach to conquest and control was taken.

Such strategic provinces were often exempt from tributary demands. The Aztecs even invested in those areas, by maintaining a permanent military presence, installing puppet-rulers, or even moving entire populations from the center to maintain a loyal base of support.

Some provinces were treated as tributary provinces, which provided the basis for economic stability for the empire, and strategic provinces, which were the basis for further expansion.

Although the form of government is often referred to as an empire, in fact most areas within the empire were organized as city-states, known as altepetl in Nahuatl.

Die Aztekischen Krieger konnten die spanischen Eroberer mit ihren primitiven Waffen nicht aufhalten. Wer den als Gottheit gehuldigten Vogel allerdings Tv Total Studio, wurde bei den Azteken mit dem Tode bestraft. Wir haben über 70 Millionen Pep Herstellung Anleitung — allesamt von echten Gästen, die nachweislich dort übernachtet haben. Tschechisch Wörterbücher.
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